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Discover the successful Poultry farming in India

The entire idea of poultry being a nice money market is really laying egg everyday and each time in terms of increase with the mixing of the sort of zoology that has laid the entire concept. With the possible and potential industrial turnover, poultry is gaining in rate and it actually deserves a special mention. So, it requires a huge push to the agricultural area with a better value of productivity that’s remodeling the rural India with all the feeding requirements that are merely that specialize in the suburbs than the urban areas.

Poultry agricultural in India is gaining at a fast rate everywhere the country and there are various organizations that are investing in these sectors. But, because the industrial industry has developed however the digital divide has been created here as a result of there are various of the rural illiterate and urbanites does not have the proper education concerning the eggs and the meat of the chicken. So, we want effective advertisement to form this sector grow with a nice market. For this reason, it’s true that the cereals containing the low protein and high cereals are giving no new facilities in terms of the energy content.nt.

Do you recognize poultry merchandise are fulfilling a lot of a lot of protein deficiencies that any different?

Diet that is enhanced with the easy intrusion of the protein diet with the egg and meat will give you high protein than any different vegetarian diet as it is containing 1st class protein diet. We all recognize that the backyard poultry farming is giving a new form and taking a replacement level in India and also the interiors. With all the marginal farmers and different lower category people are perpetually providing a balanced one in terms of the poultry farming. The rural people is taking a most advantage of it in terms of a business. The agro products that are actually gift in India but all the poultry merchandise will equally beat it.

A huge growth with a worldwide importance and this is often true that among forty years this growth has incurred a most profit in poultry farming in India. This sector is having a bright future ahead in India. You can observe that today several governmental and nongovernmental organizations particularly several cluster companies in all rounds the country is investing greatly in this particular segment. So India thrives with the rising poultry power and prospect. Nowadays we tend to are here to require a replacement plunge in each aspect thus so it is a good approach to deal.

If you are assessing the products raw materials then there are completely different species of birds with chicken, turkey, ducks, fowl and other. We are obtaining two main advantages from it. Obtaining the meat and egg may be a product as a full here. Bone mud for several chemical industries that is considered as another main product. Not solely the zoological aspects are important in this situation but the sensible investments ought to be taken into greater concepts. So there are lots of poultry farmers who are occupied with this business. In each possible aspects wide usage of the chicken as a byproduct is used currently days. The recent survey says that the production has developed at least 75% of the daily production.

The Flower, The Florist And The Flower Shop

What do these words have in common: flower, florist, flower shop? Apart from all containing the root of the word ‘flower’, there is much more that they should share. Naturally, tied by the human force of the florist, the flowers and the flower shop are intricately connected. Beyond knowing that they’re connected, it’s important to ascertain that the connection is a good one that you, as a client, will want to involve yourself in. What to look for will be a combination of the three. Make sure that on top of providing the flowers you love, the flowers are also of top quality. The florist should be a willing accomplice in ensuring that you get exactly what you ask for, exceeding your own expectations. The flower shop is vital to exceed the expectations. If the flower shop is good and reliable, you will not only get a beautiful bouquet, but it will arrive extremely fresh and on time. Be sure the florist you choose works mutually well with both the flowers and the flower shop. This will ensure a happy customer with a product that is better than imagined.
Flowers, which have been and continue to be the symbol of natural beauty throughout the ages, are one realm of fashion that has not dramatically evolved. This speaks strongly in favor of flowers, indicating their timelessness and perfection that needs no improvement. Thus, when ordering flowers, what you need to consider is not the fashion of flowers, but the preference of the receiver. Once you have decided upon the type of flower, you must find a flower shop that provides your desired selection at optimal quality. A flower’s quality depends very much on the care the florist gives, but beyond the florist’s care, it is optimal that the flowers come straight from the growers or from a flower auction. This ensures their freshness, as the time spent in travel is diminished when flowers make fewer trips to reach their flower shop destination. Flowers are known to positively influence the human psyche, so be sure to go all the way with this positive influence by buying the freshest flowers you can find on the market.
Knowing of this positive effect of flowers on people, you should expect your florist to be an optimistic and friendly person in short, the positive effect of the flowers should not be lost in the worries of their job. A talented florist is not only capable of creating a beautiful arrangement, but also willing and interested in making arrangements with you to ensure the arrival of the bouquet you envision. While the florist is an artist, who must use creativity as a tool of the job, the florist has many more roles to fulfill. One of the most important of these additional roles is the sensitivity of the florist: the florist is not merely putting flowers together, but understanding what event you need the flowers for, what type of person the flowers are directed to the florist must have the capacity to understand and sympathize with the difficulties and joys in life of every occasion, demonstrating this capacity in the end result: the flower arrangement. If the florist deals directly with the grower, either at the grower’s location or through a flower auction, this is a good indicator of the florist, showing someone who cuts the chase directly to the source, lowering prices for himself and his client, by being more direct. The florist, as aforementioned, is a person who creates the connection between flowers and flower shop, between grower and consumer. A person of vital importance, the florist is a person who is impressive and establishes a good rapport with you, his client.
The flower shop is the last, but not the least important, of our floral trinity. The flower shop completes the picture. The flower shop is the entity which makes the talent and efficiency of the florist possible; it is the florist’s workshop and tool bench, if you will, while also serving to keep the flowers in fresh and good condition. It is the flower shop that ensures delivery of flowers to their final destination not merely as a beautiful bouquet, but as fresh, lush, and blooming living creations as alive as a rainforest. In addition, the flower shop plays a role in influencing the consumer and shaping his judgment as regards the whole package of the shop. Online photographs of available bouquets do more than indicate the variety of flowers and caliber of the florist. The photographs, as well as the whole website, are indicators of the organization and professionalism of the company. The self-expression of a company speaks loudly. Reading testimonials on websites is also an indicator of the combination of the flowers, the florist, and the flower shop. It takes a strong performance from each of the participants to make a client happy.
Flowers are, without doubt, a classic, and yet exquisite gift. Unique and living, they are different from all other gifts, and manage to convey emotions at the same time as they are serving a role as a present. Thus, to optimize and reach this potential of emotion that flowers can induce, it is important that you buy your flowers from a flower shop that is professional and serious, with a staff of florists who love their work and consider their flowers as alive as we are, and lastly, with flowers that are as fresh and expressive as you are, to share exactly your thoughts through their understated and clear beauty.

Carp Catfish Bait Making Secrets — Expert Energy Ingredients Target Big Fish

Too many anglers simply make baits from corn flour, or semolina, or ordinary soya bean flour with added flavours They often have NO IDEA what fantastic catches they are missing out on by not using much more nutritional and attractive ingredients!

* Examples of nutritional carbohydrate ingredients great for use in fishing baits:

* Beans, ground-up.

* Peas, ground.

* Lentils, ground.

* sweet lupin seeds ground.

* Nuts, ground.

* Seeds, ground.

* Full fat soya flour.

* Maize meal.

* Sluis CLO.

* Dog biscuits, ground.

* Cat biscuits, ground.

* Grains, ground grains and toasted.

* Seeds, ground seeds and toasted.

Mixing carbohydrate ingredients together with other nutritional bait ingredients, provides a more nutritional bait profile, and enhanced attraction. They can even boost the attraction of protein and fats providing even more energy when carp eat your baits.

Examples of great combinations to add to your nutritional bait include:

* 4 Mixed toasted kinds of seeds, like sesame, pumpkin, sunflower and hemp.

* 4 Mixed toasted nuts, like peanuts, walnuts, brazils, and hazels.

* The importance of fats in baits:

Introduction:

Lipids (fats or oils) are esters of glycerol and fatty acids and their associated organic groups.

Carp aquaculture often the fish and shellfish oils. They are among the most essentially nutritious food sources carp in carp farming.

With the dwindling availability of supplies of wild fish for foods, the substitution of fish oil with omega 3 (docosahexaenoic acid; DHA) derived from the fermentation of algae, is sufficient to sustain growth in aquaculture.

For carp baits, inclusion of lipids at 5 % of dry mix, or about 3 to 4 milliliters per egg, is enough to meet carp dietary needs For example 10 to 20 milliliters of pure high-grade salmon oil per pound of dry boilie base mix.

This is a very highly nutritional source, and is recommended by carp anglers as one of the very best oil source attractors.

For a good oils balance, try mixing equal amounts of plant and fish or shellfish oils together.

Compared to proteins and carbohydrates, carp derive the greatest amount of energy from fats, but fats are actually extremely important in maximizing energy from carbohydrates and protein too.

They are involved in many essential processes and indeed the fats which carp need for life are termed essential fatty acids. Carp utilize a balance, for example, of monounsaturates, polyunsaturates and saturated fats. They all have their individual roles regarding regulation and availability of energy circulation, in the form of cholesterol, blood sugars, and liver stored energy as glycogen.

Carp cannot synthesize essential fatty acids in their body, and so these must be consumed in their diet. This means, in effect, that they are highly attractive to carp when used in fishing baits.

* The carp essential Omegas series:

In simple terms the most important groups of oils to put into your baits, are the two groups of polyunsaturated (essential) fatty acids (PUFAs); Omega 3, and Omega 6. The more important, where deficiencies cause carp health problems, are the omega 3s:

* Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA.)

* Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA.)

* Eicosapentaenoic acid (EHA) or (EPA.)

Once consumed, the ALA is converted to EHA / EPA; these are the most readily utilized in the carps body.

Typical omega 3 sources used in baits include fish and shellfish oils, cod liver oil, hemp oil, flaxseed oil, sesame seed oil, mixed nut oil etc.

While omega 3s are mainly found in fish oils, the omega 6s are mainly found in vegetable sources. Important ones in the series for bait are:

* Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA.)

* Arachidonic acid.

Examples of omega 6 sources for bait use are: grains, eggs, poultry, seeds, nuts, and other common vegetable oils etc.

(Hemp oil is an obvious choice, containing all the carp essential 3 to 9-omega series!)

Its important to balance them, either in a single oil form, like hemp oil, or a mixture of oils with different omegas in your bait.

Different omegas have different effects in a carps body, for example omega 6 promotes inflammation and omega-3 reduces inflammation.
(Some omegas regulate the others.)

* Examples of omega rich ingredients ideal for use in baits include:

* Hemp oil.

* Sesame seed oil.

* Canola (rapeseed oil.)

* Chia seeds.

* Flaxseeds (linseeds.)

* Niger seeds.

* Soya oil.

* Nut oils.

* Pumpkin seed oils ground-up seeds.

* Evening primrose oil.

* Emulsified pilchard oil.

* Emulsified herring oil.

* Ground canary seeds, like millet.

* Crustacean oils.

* Tiger nut oil.

Hemp oil is also rich in omega 9, as well as EHAs and GLAs too. Its natures most nutritious oil! Fish love it!

Niger seed, for example, is used by many bait companies, at, around 5 % or more, of their boilie mix; it is 40 % beneficial oils and 18 % protein!

Vegetable, shellfish and fish oils great for healthy growing carp and are also very attractive. When higher levels of these are used in aquaculture feeds, vitamin E is supplemented because too much fat can cause vitamin E deficiency in carp!

Most fish meals and shellfish meals that are ideal for use in carp baits are low in fat, at 1 % to 5 %, and therefore make an ideal bulk protein and fat providers.

Shellfish themselves ingest the two important omega 3 groups, (EPA and DHA) through the food chain, from algae and phytoplankton. Plants tend to supply more of the omega 6 group, and it can help to combine the two together in bait.

For optimum growth and balance, carp require linolenic essential fatty acids at 0.5 to 2.5 % of dry feed / bait mix. From this, carp can synthesize longer chain essential fatty acids such as: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA 20:5n 3), and docosahexaenoic acid (EHA 22:6n 3).

Fish need these highly unsaturated fatty acids, (HUFAs) n 3 omega 3 and HUFA n 6 omega 6 of the fatty acid families. Sea foods are perfect ingredients for this role as they are highly digestible and more readily broken down than red meats or poultry.

Carp need long chain essential fatty acids. These are: gamma-linoleic acid and gamma-linolenic acid (GLAs.) For example: C22 and C221 found in shrimp and krill meals.

In the mid-1980s, one particular UK carp bait manufacturer supplied fish meal boilie base mixes containing high levels of oils with added food source oils. This combination allied with feeding of lakes with large quantities of this bait, produced amazing results over a very short period of time on many waters, because the nutritional value of the bait was preferably attractive to many baits of the time.

* Wheatgerm in carp baits:

Many fishermen hook more fish on baits made with wheatgerm in the winter; but why is this?

Commercial aquaculture feeds often contain wheatgerm at about 10 % of the dry feed mix to provide more easily digestible energy in cold water temperatures. Winter, colder water formulas often have a reduced protein content of fish meal for example, but with the addition of wheatgerm.

Wheatgerm has been proven in scientific tests to have a role in dietary fat and cholesterol assimilation: plasma lipids and cholesterol were significantly decreased by addition of these two wheat components in diets of rats.

Many substances that reduce harmful cholesterol in a carps body can be put into bait, are very healthy, and are very attractive to carp as a result. These act to keep the liver and circulation healthy, among many other helpful roles.

A word about bad cholesterol or saturated fatty acids. In the correct ratio with, for example, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, these are helpful in the carps body for energy production. They are broken down by enzymes (globular proteins), in successive two-carbon fragments called acetates. These then oxidize in the cells to produce energy, which is used or stored using adenosine triphosphate.

Cod liver oil is a great carp bait additive. It contains a profile very much like the famous carp attractor fenugreek extract. it contains a volatile oil, and two or more alkaloids.

Many alkaloids are especially powerful carp attractors and many can be used for effective homemade fishing baits for many species. Trigonelline and choline in the cod liver oil accelerate the release of energy from the carps liver, and reduce glycogen deposition.

Fish seem to really enjoy these effects, and getting caught on bait containing these substances! (Cod liver oil is one of the richest sources of vitamins A and D in the world too!)

* Lecithins to improve the attractiveness and digestibility of your baits:

In winter, it is recommended to drop oil levels slightly in your baits, and add an emulsifying lecithin. These make your oils into a water-soluble emulsion, making it much easier, very importantly, for the carp to digest your bait more effectively for energy.

Lecithins are very interesting ingredients. The newer enzymatically hydrolyzed ones have the best properties, including certain extra activity on other ingredients:

* Higher surface activity.

* Better emulsifying properties.

* Excellent emulsion stability, (‘oil-in water dispensability.’)

* Ability to interact with starch.

* Different kinds of interactions with proteins.

* Lecithins are derived from vegetable oil seeds, soya bean oil, and egg yolks.

They contain choline (a pre-cursor to betaine which assists natural lecithin production in the carp, reduces cholesterol levels in the liver, and is a major source of the essential amino acid in the carp, methionine) fats, inositol (essential at the cellular level for good functioning, especially in the intestine for digestion), and essential fatty acids.

Lecithins and wheatgerm are just 2 ingredients that can make all the difference, to produce great winter carp fishing results. It truly pays to discover as many bait edges as you can, for this colder season!

The author has many more fishing and bait edges up his sleeve. Every single one can have a huge impact on catches. (Warning: This article is protected by copyright, but reprints with a link are OK.)

By Tim Richardson. The thinking anglers fishing author and expert bait making guru.

For more expert bait making information and cutting edge techniques see the expert acclaimed new ebook / book:

BIG CARP BAIT SECRETS!

http://www.baitbigfish.com

Facts About Goat Farming

Demand for products related to goats itself is an indication about good prospects in goat farming. There are some important facts that you have to keep in mind, while you start goat farming. You can opt either diary goat farming, which solely focuses on milk production, or meat goat farming that deals with production of meat. Decide the number of goats you want to have in the farm, relative to the overall space in the farm.

Goat housing is an important aspect in goat farming. Location with low as well as hilly areas that are away from highway and boasts of good irrigation, quality air, tree shades etc is suitable for goat housing. Goat housing must have good height so that goats can stand tall. There should be good ventilation, sufficient space for feeding, proper drainage system.

Housing should give protection against wild animals, weather conditions. Floor space of at least four meter square is required for an individual goat. Fresh water supply, milking space, dry space for keeping feeds etc are also required. Good dry flooring with proper bedding is required.

Then select the best goat breed by checking lineage as well as breed, conformation or body shape. Look out for the growth pattern, milk production capabilities, and fertility before selecting the goats for farms. South African Boer, Nubians, Tennessee meat goat, kiko etc are some of the good meat goat varieties. Alpine, Nubian, Toggenburg, LaMancha, Saane etc are some of the goat breeds for dairy farming.

There is need for live stock management to the taking care of goats in various conditions. In the case of does, special care is required during pregnancy until kidding. Breeder bucks, kids need different care. Management of goats fattening is vital, in the case of meat production.

There should be a proper management schedule for all activities in the farm. There should be enough staff to carryout the activities like feeding, cleaning, hair trimming, dehorning, hoof trimming, hair trimming, separation etc. As chances of infection are greater, effective cleaning mechanism is necessary.

Free grazing system is suitable for farms, which are larger, but management of wandering goats is a big task. Letting goats to graze during days at controllable space will be good, as it will help them to graze good herbs as well as grass. Kids will get chance to run around and feel the suns heat.

The goats feed must contain proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, etc. Forages, goats feeds made from grains along with energy supplements will be useful for keeping goats in a healthy manner. Special feed is required for goats meant for meat as fatty goats fetches more money.

For breeding farms may use breeder bucks or artificial insemination depending upon the facilities available. In the case of dairy farms, milking machines are necessary for milking the goats. Good storage facilities for milk are necessary.

Presence of fulltime veterinarians and regular health checkups is necessary. Relocation of ill will help in prevention of spreading of illness to other goats. Keeping goats is a business with pleasure, as they are lovely animals.

Basic Lineage 2 Adena Farming Guide

Basic Mob Hunting

You’ll normally collect more adena if you were to hunt solo rather than grouped. The amount collected is usually less unless your character is really gimp and are unable to solo mobs on its own. Ideally you should target gree/blue con mobs. Although they give you much less SP they do provide a good amount of adena for the time you would take to kill them. Make sure the mobs you are farming are not too tough and that you do not have much downtime. If you are caster, assure that you’re able to kill the mob with out having to use too much power. If you’re a tank, try not to lose too much life or you will end up sitting majority of the time you are farming. Find areas where there are less players and is loaded with mobs. Having to wait for respawns can waste alot of time. You also do not want to run into too many players farming the same mobs as you, hence it’ll reduce the amount of mobs for you to farm. Avoid using soulshots as well, they can cost alot of money and should only be used when you’re in danger of dying.

Questing

There are some quests that are actually worth doing but here are some basic questing tips you should keep in mind while completing them. Always try to complete the quests that provides the highest amount of rewards for adena and/or offers a very valuable item. Always accept quests that involves killing alot of monsters. It helps you level along with some good loots from time to time. You can also combine certain quests if they are within the same area, being able to complete multiple quests within the same route is much better than completing them seperately. Avoid traveling long distances because they take up alot of time, travelling time can be converted to farming time. Always keep a “scroll of escape” around. Good to use when in danger and good to save yourself time from travelling long distances.

Drops

There are many mobs that have good drops, but that doesn’t mean you should solely focus all your time on them. Drop rates are by chance and chances are you will spend more time killing them for nothing than actually being able to get that specific item. However, if you are farming an area with a bunch of mobs and there are some with good drops you would of course choose to hunt those first before the rest.

Buying and Selling

Avoid buying from NPC merchants. They usually tend to cost more than buying from another player in the game. If you are planning to purchase a new set of equipment or any other item, buy them from Giran. Taxes there are only 10% and when you buy in large amounts you tend to save alot more. Do not sell off your loots immediately. Try to find the best bargen for them. Look around for players who are spamming “WTB…”. They tend to offer a higher price than normal since they probably have important use of it. Private stores can be one of your biggest assets in the game. You can easily browse through a wide selection at various prices, although it may lag alot but sometimes it can be worth the time spent. You may also want to setup your own store as well when you want to sell off your items. Would be ideal when you go AFK for a long period of time or planning to go to sleep. Don’t start your store and stare at the screen though, that’s just silly and a waste of time. Avoid selling more than 3 items at a time, set price 5-10% below shop price. You should be able to get a good return within 1-2 hours.

Travelling Merchants

If you have extra adenas laying around and you tend to travel a bit for whatever reason, you can be a travelling merchants. Getting to Giran can take a while and lot of players would rather not travel there to purchase stuff unless neccessay. You can always buy a stock full of some items that are demanded within certain areas and sell them off at a higher rate than being sold at Giran. Arrows, healing potions and soulshots are commonly bought items throughout the game. Ideal to stock up a bit on those and setup a store in caves or where ever when you need to go AFK. From time to time if you know the market well enough, there are players who are in desperate need of adena and will sell their item at a much lower price than normal. You can easily buy that and resell later at a higher rate.

For even better Lineage 2 Adena guides visit http://www.lineage2adenaguide.com
For the fastest way to obtain Lineage 2 Adena visit http://www.team-vip.com/index.php?openg=14

Tips to Choose an Online Florist For Your Wedding

If you are reading this article, your big day is most probably around the corner. Before we move on, let me sincerely congratulate you. It is always a fun experience when you are planning your wedding. The idea of coordinating with a florist to discuss wedding flowers will definitely bring a big smile on your face. But the tedious thing is the idea of interviewing and selecting the right florist for the job.

Today, there are so many choices around which make it hard for you to choose the right florist to work with. The reason that you should choose a capable florist is because flowers are an important decoration feature at your wedding. The types of flowers that you choose must be able to blend well with the decorations of the hall, and a professional florist can give you the right advice. If you have a shoe-string budget, going to a traditional florist may not be a good idea. You can consider using an online florist as it is more cost effective and convenient for most brides.

In this article, let me share with you 5 tips to choose an online florist for your wedding:

1.Make sure that their flowers are good. Quality is very important and this is something you cannot compromise. You need to ensure your flowers come to you fresh on your big day.

2.Good customer service. A good florist will know that customer service is very important. They should be able to answer all your questions.

3.Experience. A good florist should be able to choose a flower arrangement that will blend with your decoration.

4.Look at the cost of the flowers. Typically, online florists are able to offer lower cost for their flowers because of low overheads. So you might want to compare the prices of various online florists before deciding to engage one.

5.Follow up with the florist few weeks before your big day. After you place your order online, call up the online florists and confirm the date, time and other logistics needed to set up the decoration.

Choosing the right florist for your wedding is extremely important because floral decoration plays a big part on your wedding. A nice floral decoration will make the hall looks romantic and definitely leave a lasting impression in your guests’ mind. So spend some time to do a thorough research and find the right online florist to work with.

How Hiring Heaters at Strawberry Farms Can Help Boost Profits

At strawberry and soft fruit farms in the UK (and across Europe), hiring industrial heaters can help maintain summer temperatures in greenhouses or under polytunnel-protected coverings 24 hours a day at the end of the season (late August/early September). For the farmer, this can only equate to one thing: an extra crop, resulting in boosted profits.

2011 A bumper year for strawberries

This year in Britain, strawberry-lovers benefited hugely from the spring/early summer heatwave. The high temperatures helped produce one of the biggest and best quality English strawberry crops for two decades. (One of England’s largest strawberry farmers, R and V Emery, said to the BBC that their production yield was up by a staggering 150 per cent on recent years, in fact).

The early start to the strawberry season has meant that many strawberry (and other soft fruit) farmers have enjoyed increased profits, but some have raised their income further still, by taking steps to ensure an extra crop could be produced at seasons end.

Strawberry farming whats involved?

Successfully growing and harvesting a saleable strawberry crop is achieved through a sequence of time and resource-intensive processes: soil preparation, planting, cultivating, irrigation, nutrition, fertilising and harvesting, as well as crop and pest management. But all this effort can prove futile if the strawberry plants are not grown and kept at appropriate temperatures (a day-time temperature of around 18 degrees Celsius is usually best.)

As summer draws to a close, and temperatures naturally drop, renting industrial heaters at a strawberry farm can help to artificially prolong the season, with the delivery of high volumes of clean, dry, warm air into glass or polytunnel-protected coverings creating an illusion of an extended summer. What is more, installing temporary heating equipment under these coverings is easy.

The best types of heaters to hire

Hired high-capacity heaters that are thermostatically controlled (and can be left to work unattended) are usually best. These can either be:

Indirect-fired heaters* delivering up to 1,306,796 btu per unit

Or

Electrical heaters delivering from 9,553 btu to 136,480 btu per unit

* Indirect-fired heaters can be either gas or oil-driven and are sophisticated, reliable and highly-efficient heaters that are most suitable for places where there is limited ventilation (and available power load); they will deliver huge volumes of clean, dry, fume-free heat safely and economically. Indirect-fired heaters can also deliver large volumes of warm air via ducting (up to 40m).

Hiring heaters for when temperatures drop mid-season

The stuff of nightmares for strawberry and soft fruit farmers, of course, is for temperatures to dramatically fall during the main growing and harvesting season. A crop can be spoilt (and therefore become unsalable) very quickly unless urgent steps are taken to restore required day-time and night-time temperatures. Should a fixed heating system at a strawberry farm suddenly develop a fault or completely stop working during this time, the farmers livelihood will be seriously under threat.

The good news is that one call to a specialist heater hire company can save the day. An established and proven specialist will offer a 24/7, year-round, emergency call-out service. They will have a vast range of hireable heater units at their depots across the country, and will also have the experience and expertise to know exactly which type of rentable heaters would be appropriate for the job.

Keeping buyers sweet!

The option for a strawberry farmer to hire heaters at the seasons end is so cost-effective, as increased profits generated through producing an extra crop in late August would mean the heater rental costs would be easily recouped. And with British strawberries being regarded as tasting sweeter than overseas imports, it makes absolute sense for strawberry farmers to produce as much fruit as possible for the home market.

CHAPTER ON FLY ASH FOR GRADUATE (CIVIL ENGINEERING) COURSE STUDENTS

CHAPTER ON FLY ASH FOR GRADUATE (CIVIL ENGINEERING) COURSE STUDENTS Subhash Chandra Sr Engineer AUD NTPC Limited Noida Office

Fly Ash – A Resource Material

Contents

1.Fly ash Introduction

1.1.General 1.2.Production and Classification 1.3.History of Fly Ash Utilization 1.4.Properties of Fly Ash 1.5.Geo-technical Properties 1.6.Chemical Properties 1.7.Quality of Fly Ash as per BIS, ASTM

2.Main avenues for use of fly ash

2.1Cement concrete and mortar 2.2Fill Material – Road and embankments construction 2.3Reclaim wasteland 2.4Mine filling 2.5Bricks, blocks and tiles Manufacturing 2.6Agricultural soil 2.7Ash Dykes 2.8Autoclaved Aerated Concrete 2.9Lightweight aggregates 2.10Cenosphere

3.Legal Issues – Ash Utilization

4.Major Successful examples

5.Conclusion

1Fly Ash Introduction 1.1General

The Fly ash word sounds its own definition i.e. material which flies along with gases and ash – a residue of burnt material. This name is used for residue of coal which is used as pulverized fuel for generation of electricity in thermal power station. In present life style electricity has become one of the most important part of day to day of human life. For generation of electricity coal is continued to be used as a major source of fuel in many countries in the World including India. In the process of electricity generation, large quantity of fly ash gets produced and becomes available as a by-product of coal-based power stations.

Fig. 1: Fly Ash mound Fig. 2: Fly Ash-microscopic view

1.2Production and Classification

In thermal power station, pulverized coal is fed into boiler furnace, after burning; the lighter and finer particles fly along with hot flue gases which are passed through Electrostatic Precipitators (ESP). In ESP these particles are arrested and then taken out either pneumatically to a storage silos in dry form or sluiced through with water and sent to ash ponds. The particles collected in ESP are called Fly Ash. It is then collected by either using electrostatic precipitators, baghouses or a combination of both.

There are four categories of Ash normally available from a coal based thermal power station. a.Fly Ash: This kind of ash is collected from different rows of Electro-Static Precipitators (ESP) in dry form. This is characterized by comparatively lower carbon content and higher fineness. Fineness of fly ash is more in subsequent field of ESP as compared to initial fields. This ash comprises about 80% of total ash produced in a station. b. Bottom Ash: This kind of ash is collected at the bottom of Boiler furnace as a result of coal burning activity. This is characterized by comparatively higher carbon content and coarse size. This comprises about 20% of total ash produced in a station. c.Pond Ash: The slurry formed after mixing ash with water is pumped to the nearby ash ponds wherein water gets drained away. The ash thus stored in ash ponds is called Pond Ash. d.Mound Ash: Fly ash conveyed in dry form and deposited dry in mounds.

1.3History of Fly Ash Utilization

Utilization of fly ash is not a new phenomenon rather it is about seven decades old. The fly ash became available in coal based thermal power station in the year 1930 in USA. In order to find out its properties, scientist started research activities and in the year 1937, R.E. Davis and his associates at university of California published research details on use of fly ash in cement concrete. This research had laid foundation for its specification, testing & usages. The research had established that fly ash possesses specific property called as pozzolanic property which was similar to volcanic ash and deserves to utilize in lime/ cement concrete works.

The pozzolanic property of a substance is defined as -A Siliceous or Siliceous and Aluminous material, which in itself possesses little or no cementitious value but will, in finely divided form and in the presence of moisture, chemically react with calcium hydroxide at ordinary temperatures to form compounds possessing cementitious properties.

The pozzolana term came from Roman city. About 2,000 years ago, Roman used volcanic ash along with lime and sand to produce mortars, which possesses superior strength characteristics & resistances to corrosive water. The best variety of this volcanic ash was obtained from the locality of pozzoli and thus the volcanic ash had acquired the name of Pozzolana. The investigations had also established that the geo-technical properties of fly ash are similar or better than many of the soils and can be utilized for structural fill & embankment construction substituting soil.

In India, to establish more uses of fly ash produced from Indian coal, research activities were continued at various research institutes of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) like Central Building Research Institute, Roorkee, Central Institute for Mining Fuel Research Institute, Dhanbad, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi etc and other Institutes like National Council for Cement & Building Materials, Ballabhgarh, IIT Kanpur, IIT Chennai, NTPC (R&D)etc. Studies have revealed that fly ash can be used in manufacture clay ash bricks, fly ash lime/ cement bricks and other building products, in agriculture, road embankments construction and fill applications.

1.4Properties of Fly Ash

Fly ash is complex material having wide range of chemical, physical and mineralogical compositions. The chemical composition of fly ash depends on the type of coal burnt in boiler furnace, oil firing, oxygen flow temperature of furnace, degree of pulverization of coal, efficiency of ESP etc. Physical properties of fly ash such as fineness or particle size, reactivity with lime / cement etc depends on design and efficiency of boiler, combustion process, coal grinding techniques employed, process of ash collection and handling method and efficiency of Electrostatic Precipitator etc.

1.5Geo-technical Properties

The majority of fly ash particles are glassy, solid or hollow, slightly to highly porous and spherical in shape. The specific gravity falls within the range of 2.1 to 2.6 and dry density is commonly found to be in the range of 950-1200 kg/m3 depending on the degree of compaction. The particle size of fly ash generally ranges from 1 micron to 100 micron in diameter of glassy spheres and 7 to 300 microns in diameter for angular carbon particles. In terms of soil grain size analysis, most fly ash particles fall within the silt range, with small percentages in the fine sand and clay sizes.

Table 1: Geo-technical properties of Fly Ash

Specific gravity g/cc1.90-2.55 PlasticityNon Plastic Proctor compaction – Maximum dry density (g/cc)0.90-1.60 Optimum moisture content (%)38.0-18.0 Angle of internal friction ( o)300-400 Cohesion (kg/cm2 )Negligible Compression index0.05-0.4 Permeability (cm/sec)105-103 Particle size distribution Clay size fraction (%) Silt size fraction (%) Sand size fraction (%) Gravel size fraction (%) 1-10 8-85 7-90 0-10 Coefficient of uniformity3.1-10.7

1.6Chemical Properties

The major constituents of most of the fly ashes are Silica (SiO2), alumina ((Al2O3), ferric oxide (Fe2O3) and calcium oxide (CaO). The other minor constituent of the fly ash are MgO, Na2O, K2O, SO3, MnO, TiO2 and unburnt carbon. There is wide range of variation in the principal constituents – Silica (25-60%), Alumina (10-30%) and ferric oxide (5-25%). When the sum of these three principal constituents is 70% or more and reactive calcium oxide is less than 10% -technically the fly ash is considered as Siliceous fly ash and also called as Class F fly ash. Such type of fly ash is produced by burning of anthracite or bituminous coal. Siliceous fly ash characteristically contains a large part of silicate glass of high silica content and crystalline phases of low reactivity mullite, magnetite and quartz. The active constituents of this type of fly ash is siliceous or alumino-silicate glass. If the sum of these three constituents is equal or less than 70% and reactive calcium oxide is not less than 10%, fly ash will be considered as Calcareous fly ash and also called as Class C fly ash. This type of fly ash is commonly produced by burning of lignite or sub-bituminous coal and possesses self setting property similar to cement.

Table 2: Chemical composition

ComponentBituminous Sub bituminous Lignite

SiO2 (%)20-6040-6015-45 Al2O3 (%)5-3520-3020-25 Fe2O3 (%)10-404-104-15 CaO (%) 1-125-3015-40 LOI (%) 0-150-30-5

1.7Quality of Fly Ash as per BIS, ASTM

To utilize fly ash as a Pozzolana in cement concrete and cement mortar, Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) has formulated IS: 3812 Part-1 2003. In this code quality requirement for siliceous fly ash and calcareous fly ash with respect its chemical and physical composition has been specified. These requirements are given as below.

Table 3: Chemical Requirements of fly ash as a Pozzolana in cement concrete and cement mortar as per Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS)

S. No.CharacteristicsRequirements Siliceous fly ashCalcareous fly ash 1Silicon dioxide (SiO2) + Aluminium oxide (Al2O3) + Iron oxide (Fe2O3), in percent my mass, minimum7050 2Silicon dioxide in percent my mass, minimum3525 3Reactive silica in percent my mass, minimum (Optional test)2020 4Magnesium Oxide (MgO), in percent my mass, max.5.05.0 5Total sulphur as sulphur trioxide (SO3), in percent my mass, max.3.03.0 6Available alkalis as sodium oxide (Na2O), in percent my mass, max.1.51.5 7Total chlorides in percent my mass, max0.050.05 8Loss on Ignition, in percent my mass, max.5.05.0

Table 4: Physical Requirements of fly ash as a Pozzolana in cement concrete and cement mortar as per Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS)

S. No.CharacteristicsRequirements Siliceous fly ash and Calcareous fly ash 1Fineness – Specific surface in m2/kg by Blaine’s permeability method, Min.320

2Particles retained on 45 micron IS sieve (wet sieving) in percent, Max. (Optional Test)34 3Lime reactivity – Average compressive strength in N/mm2, Min4.5

4Compressive strength at 28 days in N/mm2, Min.Not less than 80 percent of the strength of corresponding plain cement mortar cubes 5Soundness by autoclave test – Expansion of specimen in percent, Max.0.8

ASTM International for fly ash: ASTM International C-618-03 specifies the chemical composition and physical requirements for fly ash to be used as mineral admixture in concrete. The standards requirements are given as below.

Table 5: Chemical Requirements of fly ash as a Pozzolana in cement concrete and cement mortar as per ASTM International

S. No.CharacteristicsRequirements Class F (Siliceous fly ash)Class C (Calcareous fly ash) 1Silicon dioxide (SiO2) + Aluminium oxide (Al2O3) + Iron oxide (Fe2O3), in percent my mass, minimum7050 2Sulfur trioxide (SO3), max. Percent5.05.0 3Moisture content, max., percent3.03.0 4Loss on ignition, max., percent6.06.0

Table 6: Physical Requirements of fly ash as a Pozzolana in cement concrete and cement mortar as per ASTM International

S. No.CharacteristicsRequirements for class F & class C fly ash 1Fineness – amount retained when wet-sieved on 45 micron (No. 325) sieve, Max., percent.34

2Strength activity index oWith portland cement, at 7 days, min., percent of control oWith portland cement, at 28 days, min., percent of control75c

75c 3Water requirement, max., percent of control105

4Soundness Autoclave expansion or contraction, max., percent0.8 5Uniformity requirements: The density and fineness of individual samples shall not vary from the average established by ten preceding tests, or by all preceding tests if the number is less than ten, by more than Density (max.) variation from average percent. Percent retained on 45 micron (no. 325), max variation, percentage points from average

5

5

2Main avenues for use of fly ash

2.1Cement concrete and mortar 2.2Fill Material – Road and embankments construction 2.3Reclaim wasteland 2.4Mine filling 2.5Bricks, blocks and tiles Manufacturing 2.6Agricultural soil 2.7Ash Dykes 2.8Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) 2.9Lightweight aggregates 2.10Cenosphere

2.1Using fly ash in cement concrete and mortar

Portland Pozzolana Cement fly ash based is manufactured either by intimately intergrinding Portland cement clinker and fly ash with addition of gypsum or calcium sulphate or by intimately and uniformly blending with OPC and fine fly ash. The pozzolanic property of fly ash makes it suitable as raw material for manufacture of PPC. IS:1489 Part-1-1991(Reaffirmed 2005) is BIS specification for this cement. As per the BIS specification, fly ash constituent shall not be less than 15 percent and not more than 35 percent by mass of Portland Pozzolana Cement.

Portland Pozzolana cement produces less heat of hydration and offer greater resistance to the attack of aggressive waters than Ordinary Portland Cement. It is particularly useful in marine and hydraulic construction and other mass construction structures. This cement is equivalent to Ordinary Portland cement on the basis of the 28 days and above compressive strength. Use of fly ash in cement manufacturing helps to conserve raw material such lime stone, clay etc and also conserve coal required for clinkerization for manufacture of cement clinker. During this process generation of CO2 is also reduced, therefore, eco-friendly.

It may be noted that, Bureau of Indian Standard also permits use of Fly ash up to 5% as a Performance Improver in the manufacturing of 33 grade, 43grade and 53grade of Ordinary Portland Cement.

2.1.1How fly ash woks with cement?

Fly ash being a pozzolanic material is found to be useful for part replacement of Ordinary Cement in cement concrete and Mortar. In the concrete, cement chemically reacts with water and produces strength bearing gels called as C-H-S gels that binds other component together and provide strength to concrete and creates strength bearing materials. The reaction process is called ‘hydration’ of cement. In this process some amount of lime [Ca (OH)2] is also liberated. Fly ash available in concrete reacts with this lime and forms additional similar strength bearing gel which provides strength to concrete. As we know Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is a product of four principal mineralogical phases. These phases are Tricalcium Silicate – C3S(3CaO.SiO2), Dicalcium Silicate – C2S(2CaO.SiO2), Tricalcium Aluminate – C3A(3CaO.Al2O3) and Tetracalcium alumino-ferrite – C4AF(4CaO.Al2O3Fe2O3). The setting and hardening of the OPC takes place as a result of reaction between these principal compound and water [H2O(H)] as shown under:

2C3S + 6H = C3S2H3 + 3CH (tricalcium silicate) water (C-S-H gel)(Calcium hydroxide) 2C2S +4H = C3S2H3 + CH (dicalcium silicate) (water) (C-S-H gel)(Calcium hydroxide)

The hydration products from C3S and C2S are similar but quantity of calcium hydroxide (lime) released is higher in C3S as compared to C2S. The reaction of C3A with water takes place in presence of sulphate ions supplied by dissolution of gypsum present in OPC. This reaction is very fast and shown under:

C3A + 3(CSH2) + 26H =C3A(CS)3H22 (tricalcium Aluminate (gypsum) (water) (ettringite)

C3A + CSH2 + 10H =C3ACSH2

(monosulphoaluminate hydrate) (S – SiO2, C – CaO, A – Al2O3, F – Fe2O3)

Tetracalcium alumino-ferrite forms hydration product similar to those of similar of C3A, with iron substituting partially for alumina in the crystal structures of ettringite and mono sulpho-aluminate hydrate.

Above reaction indicate that during the hydration process of cement, lime is released out and remains as surplus in the hydrated cement. This leached out surplus lime renders deleterious effects to concrete such as make the concrete porous, give chance to the development of micro-cracks, weakening the bond with aggregates and thus affects the durability of concrete.

If fly ash is available in the mix, this surplus lime becomes the source for pozzolanic reaction with fly ash and forms additional C-S-H gel having similar binding properties in the concrete as those product by hydration of cement paste. The reaction of fly ash with surplus lime continues as long as lime is present in the pores of liquid cement. The process is illustrated as below.

2.1.2Advantage of use of Fly ash with concrete

Fly ash concrete3 was as early as used in the U.S. for the Hoover Dam, where engineers found that it allowed for less total cement. It is now used across the world. Consisting mostly of silica, alumina and iron, fly ash is a pozzolana substance containing aluminous and silicious material that forms cement in the presence of water. When mixed with lime and water it forms a compound similar to portland cement. The spherical shape of the particles reduces internal friction thereby increasing the concrete’s consistency and workability, permitting longer pumping distances. Improved workability means less water is needed, resulting in less segregation of the mixture.

(i)Reduced Heat of Hydration

In concrete mix, when water and cement come in contact, a chemical reaction initiates that produces binding material and consolidates the concrete mass. The process is exothermic and heat is released which increases the temperature of the mass. The large temperature rise of concrete mass exerts temperature stresses and can lead to formation of micro cracks. When fly ash is used as part of cementitious material, quantum of heat liberated is low and staggers through pozzolanic reactions and thus reduces micro-cracking and improves soundness of concrete mass. (ii)Improved Workability of Concrete Fly ash particles are generally spherical in shape; this gives a ball bearing effect to the mixing of aggregates & cement. This way part mixing is achieved and leads for reduced water requirements for a given slump. The spherical shape helps to reduce friction between aggregates and between concrete and pump line and thus increases workability and improve pumpability of concrete. Fly ash use in concrete increases volume of fines and decreases water content and thus reduces bleeding of concrete. (iii)Reduced Permeability & increased corrosion protection Water is essential constituent of concrete preparation. When concrete is hardened, part of the entrapped water in the concrete mass is consumed by cement mineralogy for hydration. Some part of entrapped water evaporates, thus leaving porous channel to the extent of volume occupied by the water. Some part of this porous volume is filled by the hydrated products of the cement paste. The remaining part of the voids consists capillary voids and give way for ingress of water. Similarly, the liberated lime by hydration of cement is water-soluble and is leached out from hardened concrete mass, leaving capillary voids for the ingress of water. Higher the water cement ratio, higher will be the porosity and thus higher will be the permeability. The permeability makes the ingress of moisture and air easy and is the cause for corrosion of reinforcement. Higher permeability facilitate ingress of chloride ions into concrete and is the main cause for initiation of chloride induced corrosion. Additional cementitious material results from reaction between liberated surplus lime and fly ash, blocks these capillary voids and also reduces the risk of leaching of surplus free lime and thereby reduces permeability of concrete. (iv)Improved Resistance for Carbonation Phenomena Carbonation phenomenon in concrete occurs when lime of the hydrated Portland Cement react with carbondioxide from atmospheres in the presence of moisture and form calcium carbonate. To a small extent, calcium carbonate is also formed when calcium silicate and aluminates of the hydrated Portland cement react with carbon dioxide from atmosphere. Carbonation process in concrete results in two deleterious effects (i) shrinkage (ii) Corrosion. Concrete immediately adjacent to steel reinforcement may reduce its resistance to corrosion. The rate of carbonation depends on permeability of concrete, quantity of surplus lime and environmental conditions such as moisture and temperature. When fly ash is available in concrete; it consumes surplus lime by way of pozzolanic reaction, reduces permeability and as a result improves resistance of concrete against carbonation phenomenon.

(v)Increased Sulphate Resistance

Sulphate attacks in concrete occur due to reaction between sulphate from external origins or from atmosphere with surplus lime leads to formation of etrringite, which causes expansion and results in volume destabilization of the concrete. Increase in sulphate resistance of fly ash concrete is due to continuous reaction between fly ash and leached out lime, which continue to form additional C-S-H gel. This C-S-H gel fills in capillary pores in the cement paste, reducing permeability and ingress of sulphate ions.

(vi)Reduced alkali- aggregate reaction Certain types of aggregates react with available alkalis and cause expansion and damage to concrete. These aggregates are termed as reactive aggregates. It has been established that use of adequate quantity of fly ash in concrete reduces the amount of alkali aggregate reaction and reduces/ eliminates harmful expansion of concrete. The reaction between the siliceous glass in fly ash and the alkali hydroxide of Portland cement paste consumes alkalis thereby reduces their availability for expansive reaction with reactive silica aggregates. (vii)Greater long – term strength

The pozzolanic reaction between fly ash and lime liberated from hydration cement continue for longer period & generates additional cementitious gel which provide greater strength to concrete mass.

In a nutshell, it can be summarized that permeability and surplus lime liberated during the hydration of Portland cement are the root causes for deleterious effect on the concrete. Impermeability is the foremost defensive mechanism for making concrete more durable and is best achieved by using fly ash as above. Use of fly ash in concrete saves the cement requirement for the same strength thus saving of raw materials such as limestone, coal etc required for manufacture of cement and thus activity is eco-friendly.

The Indian Standards IS: 456-2000-entitled Plain and Reinforced cement concrete code of practice permits use of fly ash (conforming to IS:3812 Part-1) up to 35% as part replacement of OPC in the concrete. 2.2Use of Fly ash as a fill material i.e. for road embankment construction and similar projects One of the most significant characteristics of fly ash in its use as a fill material is its strength. Well-compacted fly ash has strength comparable to or greater than soils normally used in earth fill operations. In addition, fly ash possesses self-hardening properties which can result in the development of shear strengths. Significant increases in shear strength can be realized in relatively short periods of time and it can be very useful in the design of embankments6.

Construction of road embankments using fly ash, involves encapsulation of fly ash in earthen core or with RCC facing panels. Since there is no seepage of rain water into the fly ash core, leaching of heavy metals is also prevented. When fly ash is used in concrete, it chemically reacts with cement and reduces any leaching effect. Even when it is used in stabilization work, a similar chemical reaction takes place which binds fly ash particles. Moisture content of pond ash to be nearer to OMC after having been taken out from pond and stored for one or two days.

Use of fly ash in the construction of road embankment of the second Nizamuddin Bridge in New Delhi, has amply demonstrated its suitability as a material for road/embankment construction. The site proximity to the river Yamuna posed a challenge to use the conventional material; moreover, the embankment of 7 to 8 metre height was to be constructed for a stretch of about two kilometers in a flood zone.

The construction work has been completed in a record time. The on-site quality control was maintained with simple tests and procedures. These were similar to the corresponding requirements in case of earthworks. No operational or execution problems have been faced on technical aspects, rather the working with fly ash has been found to be easier and better. Further, use of fly ash results in an enormous amount of cost saving.

Advantages of using fly ash for road construction

a)Fly ash is a lightweight material, as compared to commonly used fill material (local soils), therefore, causes lesser settlements. b)Easy to handle and compact because the material is light and there are no large lumps to be broken down. Can be compacted using either vibratory or static rollers. c)High permeability ensures free and efficient drainage. After rainfall, water gets drained out freely ensuring better workability than soil. d)Work on fly ash fills/ embankments can be restarted within a few hours after rainfall, while in case of soil it requires much longer period. e)Conserves good earth, which is precious topsoil, thereby protecting the environment. f)Higher value of California Bearing Ratio as compared to soil provides for a more efficient design of road pavement. g)Pozzolanic hardening property imparts additional strength to the road pavements/ embankments and decreases the post construction horizontal pressure on retaining walls. h)Amenable to stabilization with lime and cement. i)Can replace a part of cement and sand in concrete pavements thus making them more economical than roads constructed using conventional materials.

2.3Use of Ash in waste land Reclamation

It is a very difficult task to convert a wasteland to greenery. Tata Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) had identified certain strains of naturally occurring mycorrhizal fungi that provide nutritional support and high level of stress tolerance to the plants. These were applied to plants on fly ash dumps in Korba Super Thermal Power Station with additional doses of organic and Mycorrhizal fertilizers. The fungi form a reciprocating relationship with the living roots by providing nutrition to plants from the substrate and receive carbon in turn from them. The mycelial network of the Mycorrhizal fungi, accumulate heavy metal from fly ash and retain them in their living cells. In a short period of time, the grey, toxic fly ash laden waste land was converted to that of green vegetation. The technology was successfully replicated in Badarpur and Vijayawada Thermal Power Stations

Waste5/degraded land/low lying areas near in the vicinity of different TPPs viz. Farakka STPP, Bhusawal TPS, Chandrapur STPP, Harduaganj/ Obra/ Anpara TPPs of UPRVUNL, NLC and in the State of Jharkhand have been reclaimed and made suitable for crop farming /social forestry /medicinal plants through bulk use of fly ash. Thus Fly Ash has been established to act as excellent soil conditioner/ modifier.

2.4Use of fly ash in Mine filling

Fly ash in back filling of opencast mines and stowing of underground mines can be used. In open cast mines after extraction of coal and completion of mining operation, mines are back-filled with over burden materials and remaining area can be backfilled with ash.

In case of under ground mines the conventional material for back filling is river sand. NTPC has got studies conducted (including fields trials) through Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad for use of bottom ash from Ramagundam for stowing operation in the under ground mines of Singreni. The study indicates that it is technically feasible to utilize bottom ash in stowing operations. More than 1,00,000 tonnes of bottom ash have already been stowed in these underground mines.

2.5Use of Fly Ash in Bricks and other building product Manufacturing

Fly ash can be used for making a variety of building materials such as Bricks, Blocks, Cellular concrete, Tiles etc. Brick is a basic need for the development works. Several studies show that fly ash brick is a far superior building material than burnt clay brick. The use of fly ash brick provides a stronger, more durable construction that is better protected from efflorescence and salinity with meaningful savings in construction costs. Fly Ash Brick Making Machines used for manufacturing bricks of different sizes from fly ash.

The process of manufacturing lime fly ash bricks is based on the reaction of lime with silica of fly ash to form calcium silicate hydrates(C-S-H) which binds the ingredients to form a brick. The quality of bricks8 obtained is highly dependant on the quality of fly ash. The manufacturing of Lime-Fly ash bricks are generally designed such that they stand at par with burnt clay bricks used conventionally. Fly ash bricks have good compressive strength, low water absorption, high density and low shrinkage value as compared to burnt clay bricks. 3.5.1Fly ash bricks can be divided into the following types

Clay Fly ash Bricks: Manufacturing process of clay fly ash bricks by manual or extrusion process involves mixing of fly ash (20 % – 80 %) with clay of moderate plasticity. The green bricks are dried under ambient atmospheric conditions or in shed to equilibrium moisture level of below 3 %. Dried bricks are fired in traditional brick kilns at 1000 30 C with a soaking period of 5 – 7 hours at maturing temperature. Fly ash Sand Lime Bricks: In presence of moisture, fly ash reacts with lime at ordinary temperature and forms a compound possessing cementitious properties. After reactions between lime and fly ash, calcium silicate hydrates are produced which are responsible for the high strength of the compound. This process involves homogeneous mixing of raw materials (generally fly ash, sand and lime), moulding of bricks and then curing of the green bricks. 3.5.2Advanced work: Cold Bonded Lightweight Fly ash Bricks, Blocks and Tiles: The material can be produced in a variety of building blocks, bricks and tiles, depending on local markets and regulations. The mixed raw material is cast in moulds, after which the moulds are processed in a microwave oven for transportation to the building site. Flux Bonded Fly ash Bricks Blocks and Tiles: The process is similar to the one in the conventional tile industry: fly ash is mixed with less than 10 % plastic clay and a few additives and tiles, bricks or blocks are pressed. These shapes are fired in the range of 900C to 1000C to make the final product. More than 85% of fly ash is used in the process. 3.5.2Advantages of fly ash bricks over clay bricks:

1)Growing cold crushing strength 2)No efflorescence 3)Compact construction & Consistent quality 4)Better thermal insulation properties 5)Availability through out the year. 6)Better shape & finish 7)Rationalization of Mortar with optional need of Plaster.

Fly ash Bricks v/s Normal Clay Bricks – Comparison

NORMAL CLAY BRICKFLY ASH BRICK Varying colour as per soil Uniform pleasing colour like cement Uneven shape as hand made Uniform in shape and smooth in finish Lightly bonded Dense composition Plastering required No plastering required Heavier in weight Lighter in weight Compressive strength is around 35 kg/cm2Compressive strength is around 100 kg/cm2 More porous Less porous Thermal conductivity 1.25 – 1.35 w/m2 C Thermal conductivity 0.90-1.05 w/m2 C Water absorption 20-25%Water absorption 6-12%

Subhash Chandra Sr Engineer AUD NTPC Limited Noida Office

Normal Clay Brick Fly Ash Brick

3.5.3Blocks

Day by day the uses of concrete blocks are gaining importance due to its own importance and advantages, except for its cost. The cost of concrete blocks can be cut drastically with the use of fly ash for its manufacturing. Manufacturing of fly ash blocks requires following ingredients Fly Ash: The fly ash should conform to IS requirement; dry fly ash with lime reactivity more than 60 kg/cm2. Cement: 43 grade Ordinary Portland Cement conforming to IS Sand: sand required for the mix should be free from dirt, impurities and fall in zone II. Coarse Aggregate: Crushed aggregate of maximum nominal size 10 mm.

Manufacturing: The fly ash concrete blocks can be manufactured on machine. Blocks are partially compacted and it requires to attend early strength so that transportation is easy. The fly ash is mix dry with the cement, before adding the raw materials to the mixer. The properly mixed concrete is placed in the block making machine. The blocks extracted from the machine is air dried and then sent for curing. Fly ash concrete requires more period for curing than ordinary concrete.

2.6Use of Ash in Agriculture Fly Ash consists of practically all the elements present in soil except organic carbon and nitrogen. Thus it was found that this material could be used as an additive material in agriculture applications. In view of the above, some agencies/ individuals/ institutes at dispersed locations conducted some preliminary studies on the effect and feasibility of fly ash as an input material in agricultural7 applications. It was generally observed that both sandy and clayey soils tend to become loamy in texture. Optimum bulk density in turn improves the soil porosity, the workability of the soil, the root penetration and the moisture retention capacity of the soil. The application of Fly Ash has been found to increase the available water content of loamy sand soil by 120% and of a sandy soil by 67%. RRL Bhopal reported that application of Fly Ash increase the porosity of Black Cotton Soil and decreases the porosity of sandy soils and thereby saves irrigation water around by 26% and 30% respectively. This improvement in water holding capacity is beneficial to the plants especially under rainfed agriculture. Further, in India most of the Fly Ash produced is alkaline in nature. Hence an application of these to agricultural soil increases the soil PH; it simultaneously adds essential plant nutrients to the soil. Some fly ash is acidic which may be used for reclamation of alkaline soils. Fly ash application helps in reducing surface encrustation, which is a problem in red soils. Studies in this context have revealed the followings. It improves permeability status of soil Improves fertility status of soil (soil health) / crop yield Improves soil texture Reduces bulk density of soil Improves water holding capacity / porosity Optimizes ph value Improves soil aeration Reduces crust formation Provides micro nutrients like Fe, Zn, Cu, Mo, B, Mn, etc. Provides macro nutrients like K, P, Ca, Mg, S etc.

Keeping the above important findings in view, pond ash at a dose of 30-50 tonne per hectare on one time basis along with recommended dose of fertilizers / manures is recommended for its use agriculture/ forestry sector/wasteland management or cultivation of different cereals / pluses/ oil seeds / vegetables etc., the repeat application of which can be made after 4-5 years as it would have significant residual effect on the yield of succeeding crops over a period of 4-5 years. 2.7Ash Dyke Raising

A number of ash disposal facilities across the country have been designed. Ash dyke9 maintaining is one of them. It can be raised both by dry disposal and wet disposal system. In dry disposal, the fly ash is transported by truck, chute or conveyor at the site and disposed of by constructing a dry embankment (dyke). An important aspect of design of ash dykes is the internal drainage system. The seepage discharge from internal surfaces must be controlled with filters that permit water to escape freely and also to hold particles in place and the piezometric surface on the downstream of the dyke. The internal drainage system consists of construction of rock toe, 0.5m thick sand blanket and sand chimney. After completion of the final section including earth cover the turfing is developed from sod on the downstream slope. 2.8Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) is a precast structural product made with all-natural raw materials. In 1914, the Swedes discovered a mixture of cement, lime, water and sand that expands by adding aluminum powder. The material was further developed to what we know today as autoclaved aerated concrete (also called autoclaved cellular concrete). It is an economical, sustainable, solid block that provides thermal and acoustic insulation as well as fire and termite resistance. AAC is available in a variety of forms, ranging from wall and roof panels to blocks and lintels. To manufacture AAC, Portland cement is mixed with lime, silica sand, fly ash, water and aluminum powder or paste and poured into a mold. The reaction between aluminum and concrete causes microscopic hydrogen bubbles to form, expanding the concrete to about five times its original volume. After evaporation of the hydrogen, the now highly closed-cell, aerated concrete is cut to size and formed by steam-curing in a pressurized chamber (an autoclave). The result is a non-organic, non-toxic, airtight material that can be used for wall, floor, and roof panels, blocks, and lintels which according to the manufacturers, generate no pollutants or hazardous waste during the manufacturing process AAC may be beneficial in climates where outdoor temperature fluctuates over a 24-hour period from above to below the indoor temperature conditioned air set point. Advantages of AAC: 1.Light weight construction hence lighter foundation 2.Faster construction 3.Higher thermal and sound insulation 4.Higher resistively to fire 5.Lesser size of structural member i.e. lesser section of beams and columns 2.9Manufacturing lightweight aggregates from fly ash These are in great demand where stone mining is banned. However it is not true replacement of stone aggregate but good alternative where local requirement are of lower range. Lightweight aggregates have been manufactured by sintering fly ash and crushing the product into suitable sizes. These aggregates possess unique characteristics that make them suitable for high strength and high performance concrete. Concrete produced using these aggregates is around 22% lighter and at the same time 20% stronger than normal weight aggregate concrete. Drying shrinkage is around 33% less than that of normal weight concrete. Moreover, the aggregates possess high durability characteristics required in high performance structures. The importance of the new aggregates lies mostly in the fact that superior qualities are achieved without having to increase the cement content. Thus it is possible to reduce the amount of cement by as much as 20% without affecting the required strength. The use of lightweight aggregate in concrete has many advantages. These include: (a) Reduction of dead load that may result in reduced footings sizes and lighter and smaller upper structure. This may result in reduction in cement quantity and possible reduction in reinforcement. (b) Lighter and smaller pre-cast elements needing smaller and less expensive handling and transporting equipment. (c) Reductions in the sizes of columns and slab and beam dimensions that result in larger space availability. (d) High thermal insulation. (e) Enhanced fire resistance. 2.10Cenosphere – Fly Ash by-product The process of burning coal in thermal power plants produces fly ash containing ceramic particles made largely of alumina and silica. The ceramic particles in fly ash have three types of structures. The first type of particles are solid and are called precipitator. The second type of particles are hollow and are called cenospheres. The third type of particles are called plerospheres, which are hollow particles of large diameter filled with smaller size precipitator and cenospheres. Thus Cenosphere is a by-product of fly ash. A cenosphere is a lightweight, inert, hollow sphere filled with inert air or gas. The color of cenospheres varies from gray to almost white and their density is about 0.4-0.8 g/cm, which gives them a great buoyancy. These are hard and rigid, light, waterproof, innoxious, and insulative. This makes them highly useful in a variety of products, notably fillers. 3Legal Issues – Ash Utilization United Nations Conference on the Human Environment held at Stockholm in June, 1972, in which India participated, to take appropriate steps for the protection and improvement of human environment. In view of this, parliament passed THE ENVIRONMENT (PROTECTION) ACT, 1986 on 23rd May, 1986 for protection and improvement of environment and the prevention of hazards to human beings, other living creatures, plants and property. Consequently Ministry of Environment and Forest, Govt of India has issued Gazette Notification regarding use of Fly Ash, which is as under:

1st Notification – 14.09.1999

Use of fly ash, bottom ash or pond ash in the manufacture of bricks and other construction activities.- (1) No person shall within a radius of fifty kilometers from coal or lignite based thermal power plants, manufacture clay bricks or tiles or blocks for use in construction activities without mixing at least 25 per cent of ash (fly ash, bottom ash or pond ash) with soil on weight to weight basis. ‘ (2) There shall be a authority for ensuring the use of specified quantity. In case of non-compliance, the said authority may cancel the license of brick kiln or may cancel mining lease (3) In case of non-availability of ash from thermal power plant in sufficient quantities as certified by the said power plant, the stipulation under para (1) shall be suitably modified (waived/ relaxed). (4) Each coal or lignite based thermal power plant shall constitute a dispute settlement committee. (5) Annual implementation report providing information about the compliance of provisions in this notification shall be submitted by the 30th day of April every year to the Central Pollution Control Board, concerned State Pollution Control Board/Committee and the concerned Regional Office of the Ministry of Environment and Forests by the coal or lignite based thermal power plants. (6) Power Plants to issue ash free of cost for ten years. (7) Use of fly ash, 100% utilization of Ash by all thermal power stations in – 15 years for existing stations – 9 years for new stations Specifications for use of ash-based products.- (1) Manufacture of ash-based products such as cement, concrete blocks, bricks, panels or any other material or the use of ash in construction activity such as in road laying, embankments or use as landfill to reclaim low lying areas including back filling in abandoned mines or pitheads or for any other use shall be carried out in accordance with specifications and guidelines laid down by the Bureau of Indian Standards, Indian Bureau of Mines, Indian Road Congress, Central Building Research institute, Roorkee, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi, Building Materials and Technology Promotion Council, New Delhi, Central Public Works Department, State Public Works Departments and other Central and State Government agencies. (2) The Central Public Works Department, Public Works Departments in the State/Union Territory Governments, Development Authorities, Housing Boards, National Highway Authority of India and other construction agencies including those in the private sector shall also prescribe the use of ash and ash-based products in their respective schedules of specifications and construction applications, including appropriate standards and codes of practice, within a period of four months from the publication of this notification. (3) All local authorities shall specify in their respective building bye-laws and regulations the use of ash and ash-based products and construction techniques in building materials, roads, embankments or for any other use within a period of four months from the date of publication of this notification.

2nd Notification – 27.08.2003 (Amendment)

1.Radius for Use of ash for Brick manufacturing increased from 50 km to 100 km 2.Buildings within a radius of 50 Km to use ash based Bricks / Blocks /Tiles in phased manner i.e. 50% by 31st August 2004 100% by 31st August 2005 3.Buildings within a radius of 50 to 100 Km 25% by 31st August 2004 50% by 31st August 2005 75% by 31st August 2006 100% by 31st August 2007 4.It is responsibility of the construction agency either undertaking the construction or approving the design or both to ensure the implementation of the above provision 5.In case of non-compliance, consent order & mining lease of brick kilns to be cancelled. 6.Power plants to maintain month-wise record of ash made available to each brick kiln. 7.Implementing authority shall be Regional Officer of the State PCB or the Pollution Control Committee.

3rdNotification – 03.09.2009 (Amendment)

1.Mandate of compulsory use of fly ash in clay bricks/ tile/ block within 100 km of TPS-deleted 2.Free issue of fly ash and pond ash to Cement, Ready Mixed Concrete, Asbestos Products etc.-deleted 3.Existing TPS / expansion units in operation to achieve ash utilization levels (from date of Notification), as mentioned below: At least 50%- 1 year, 60% -2 years, 75% – 3 years,90% -4 years, 100%-5 years 4.New TPS / expansion units commissioned after this notification At least 50% – 1 year, 70% – 2 years, 90%-3 years, 100%- 4 years

5.TPS would be free to sell fly ash to User Agencies subject to: Pond ash -to be given free on -as is where is basis- to manufacturers of Bricks/ Blocks and tiles, Farmers, Central / State Road Construction Agencies, PWD and to agencies engaged in Mine filling. At least 20% of dry ESP fly ash -free of charge to units manufacturing fly ash/ clay-fly ash bricks, blocks & tiles on a priority basis over other users. No fly ash to be made available to defaulting users. 6.The amount from sale (including by subsidiary / sister concern) to be kept in separate account head and to be utilized only for development of infrastructure / facilities and promotion / facilitation activities for use of fly ash, until 100% ash utilization is achieved. 7.The amount can be utilized for other development programs as long as 100% ash utilization level is maintained. 8.TPS to constitute dispute settlement committee which shall include GM of plant, representatives of relevant construction and fly ash brick manufacturing association. 9.Fly ash means all type of ash such as ESP ash, dry fly ash, bottom ash, pond ash and mound ash. 10.Mandatory to use at least 25% of fly ash within a distance of 50km (by road) under the guidance of DGMS

4Major Successful examples World Over The ash generated from Volcanoes was used extensively in the construction of ancient Roman structures i.e. The Aqueduct of Segovia, Spain, Dome of the Pantheon, Insula in Ostia Antica, The Baths of Caracalla, etc. Colosseum (in the year 100 A.D.) is a classic example of durability achieved by using volcanic ash. Volcanic Ash acts just like our Fly Ash. In the United States of America more than six million tonnes and in Europe more than nine million tonnes are used annually in cement and concrete. So it is hard to think about concrete construction without considering the use of fly ash. Some of the most prestigious projects of recent times have relied on fly ash concrete, including dams, power stations, offshore platforms, the Channel tunnel, highways, airports, commercial and residential buildings, bridges, pipelines and silos. No wonder that fly ash is used in all sectors of the concrete industry, covering ready-mixed, precast and on-site applications. Fine examples of application of minerals from coal can be seen throughout world: Water Tower Place in Chicago, the Eisenhower Expressway in Chicago, Picasso Tower in Madrid, the Commerzbank Tower in Frankfurt, Puylaurent dam in France, the Channel Fig. 5: Burj Dubai Tunnel between France and United Kingdom, the Underground railway tunnel in Vienna, in the East Bridge in Copenhagen, and the Eindhoven Airport landing strip in the Netherlands. High performance concrete is used in the construction of the world’s tallest building (Burj Dubai) in Dubai, United Arab Emirates: 990 fine aggregate, 810 coarse aggregate, 350 Portland cement, 120 Class F fly ash (probably exported from India), 30 Microsilica, 135 water and superplasticizer (kg/m3). India Fly Ash has been used successfully in many prestigious projects in India. Some of them are: Okhla Fly over Bridge, New Delhi, Hanumaan setu, the fly over near Yamuna Bazar, Delhi, Sarita Vihar flyover in Delhi, Noida-Greater Noida Expressway, plant roads at Budge-Budge thermal power station, NH-6 four laning work near Kolkata, one km long rural road near Raichur in Karnataka etc. Use of Roller Compacted concrete technology using high doses of fly ash for construction of Saddle Dam and upper Dam of Ghatghar pumped storage Scheme near Nashik, have been implemented. 5.Conclusion:

Use of fly ash in various applications imparts several technical and environmental benefits and thus it is eco-friendly. Large quantity of fly ash is being produced every year in power generation process and huge area of agriculture land is being used for its storage / disposal. Since electricity is requirement of every individual, it is the responsibility of every user to make sincere efforts for its gainful utilization and protection of environment. References: – 1.IS 3812-2003, Pulverized Fuel Ash specification, part 1for use as pozzolana in cement, cement mortar and concrete. 2.ASTM international C: 618-03 Standard specification for coal ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolana for use in concrete. 3.V M Malhotra and A A Ramezaniapour March 1994, Fly Ash in Concrete. 4.Seminar document, May 1996 Maharshtra India Chapter of ACI, Use of fly ash in concrete. 5.Using fly ash Extracting value from waste Published by INEP. 6.Vimal Kumar and Mukesh Mathur Fly ash in roads and embankment, National seminar and Business Meet in Use of Fly Ash in Roads and Embankment, Allahabad, June 2005, pp.3-15. 7.Chand, S.K. and Rao, Bhuganga D.D. Fly ash disposal or utilization?, International Conference on Fly Ash and Utilization, 1998, Central Board of Irrigation and Power, pp. I-5, 35-40. 8.Bhanumathidas, N. and Kalidas, N. Fly ash for bricks, cement and concrete: The Indian perspective, Paper presented at the plenary session of the CANMET/ACI Conference on Fly ash, Silica fume, Slag and Natural Pozzolanas in Concrete, Chennai, July 2001. 9.Extract from paper ‘Technology: Fly ash Disposal and Utilization: The Indian Scenario’ by Rajiv Sinha, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Kanpur Subhash Chandra Sr Engineer AUD NTPC Limited Noida Office CHAPTER ON FLY ASH FOR GRADUATE (CIVIL ENGINEERING) COURSE STUDENTS

The Numerous Colors Of A Valentines Day Rose To Select From

Many people think of lovely red roses on Valentine’s Day for the reason that roses represent their love, interest and beauty to the giver or receiver. While red roses are one of the most popular color of roses delivered on Valentines Day, they arent the only possibility. You can show your most intimate feelings and thoughts by sending other shades and colors of roses as well. In fact, that exclusive someone in your life will understand the personalized sentiment even more. For this Valentine’s Day, exhibit your love, faithfulness and enthusiasm for that special someone by deciding on one of many shades listed below.

If you want to show your serious affection but are too afraid to convey, “I love you,” then contemplate giving captivating orange roses that represent attraction with a tone of passion. The brilliant petals of orange roses represent enthusiasm for the partnership. Orange roses are perfect for the man or woman who isn’t willing to say those three strong words.

An attractive light purple or lavender rose represents immediate desire for the person in a brand new relationship. They convey all of the things that brand new relationships are made of: the rush and excitement, the enchantment and the interest. Lilac-colored roses make perfect Valentine’s Day treasure.

Pale pink is yet another preferred color for Valentines Day. All things feminine are represented in a light pink rose; the fine pink petals resemble a woman’s smooth skin. She will certainly fully grasp your message that you simply enjoy her physically with a bouquet of pale pink roses. These roses would be the perfect selection for an strong physical and passionate holiday.

The majority of the time, you dont wish to send different messages in relationships. But when you combine various colors of roses in the same bouquet, your meaning will be quite clear. For instance, a bouquet of orange and lavender roses exhibit your excitement for the partnership to move forward. Another example is a lovely bouquet of white and red roses mixed together which can symbolize oneness as a couple. This is the perfect arrangement to send after having a difficult year. It tells your significant other that you are in this with each other, bound by love and affection.

The size of the bouquet also implies a meaning. Most people order one or two dozen Valentine’s Day roses. Just as an assembly of exotic chocolates elicits memorable feelings, a bouquet of one dozen roses undeniably says, Be mine.” To send a clear message which shouts, “I love you,” send two dozen roses. But a bouquet of 50 doesnt just say, I love you; rather, it yells Im always and permanently yours!” There is no better approach to express your undying love than by producing a grand gesture of a big bouquet of breathtaking roses.

You might imagine that buying this many roses will probably be quite expensive. At a local florist, it very well could be. Instead, you might like to consider ordering roses of this degree from a wholesale florist. Wholesalers offer the highest quality roses at profoundly discounted prices. When you buy from a reputable wholesaler, you will receive fresh, fabulous roses shipped right to your home. No waiting in line at a florist for what may seem like hours or buying second-rate roses from the supermarket or street vendor.

Carp Bait Amino Acids As Attractors And Nutritional Stimulators

In carp bait attraction, there are few substances as effective at stimulating carp to feed than amino acids!

So it is well worth taking a quick look at the basics of them and how to easily use them in your homemade baits in many extremely effective ways!

There has been great history of success in making carp boilies with amino acids, and including ingredients that provide them:

Amino acids are extremely important and are not synthesized naturally in the carp body, but are essential! Carp are, in a way, addicted to these, to stay alive!

In general, it seems a carps diet may often be most deficient in the amino acids Lysine and Methionine.

In carp farming, fish meals and shellfish meals are used very extensively and form the protein basis of most dietary feeds. Individually, they provide an extremely beneficial, wide profile of essential amino acids and essential fats.

Crustacean by-products are used too, providing carotenoid pigments, which are extremely healthy antioxidants, and are therefore very attractive to carp! (Spirulina contains these too and certain bird foods etc.)

The essential building block of proteins are the amino acids. Carp are extremely good at detecting these in their watery environment, and at synthesizing these in their bodies; they simply love them and have been proven exceptional when used in carp baits by top anglers for years!

The C-alpha atom of amino acids carries four different groups:

An amino group, a carboxyl group, an H-atom, (hydrogen,) and a side chain. The twenty or so amino acids occurring in all living things are marked by a three letter code.

For example, the most abundant of these occurring in nature is the familiar L-Glutamic acid. (This is also the infamously effective taste enhancer monosodium glutamate).

The most naturally occurring amino acids that can be found in proteins belong to this L (or naturally commonly occurring) group. The formula shows they are optically active compounds and are the ones found utilized most in carps natural diet.

Some amino acids are essential to carp health. These are most often tested, for example, in Japanese carp research, for individual amino acids tested in solution for carp attraction and feeding response tests!

Heating baits, e.g. by boiling for an excessive time, can denature proteins and lessen their attractive qualities. Pastes are therefore superior to boilies, because their proteins remain undamaged.

In heating, for example, peptide bond formation occurs between lysine and dicarboxylic acid locking-up these in proteins. The free epsilon group (e.g. in Lysine) is particularly vulnerable; lysine is used to determine the biological availability in carp feed proteins.

Amino acid ionization in water (solution), is very important for the carp to detect them, to stimulate feeding, in different water temperatures and pH levels.

There are many scientific studies investigating these effects on carp stimulation, in acid, neutral and alkaline water solutions, in warm and cold water.

Carp are very responsive to the naturally occurring amino acids like aqueous L-isomers of L-Proline and L-Alanine, but at very specific concentrations and temperatures.

Palatability of carp bait not necessarily directly related to pH; but amino acid concentration and molecular structure can play a greater role in triggering a strong feeding response. Certain carp essential amino acids in your bait will vary in their ability to trigger carp into feeding.

This will depend on many variables including how deficient a carp is in particular aminos, which amino acid is most deficient in your bait and therefore acts as a limitation to the carp to utilise all the other amino acids in your bait and other factors.

So it seems best to include the widest range of amino acids in your bait, to cover the most likely temperature and concentration stimulation conditions, e.g. day or night, hot or cold, acid or more alkaline water pH.

Trout, for example, respond strongly to a different set of aqueous solutions for example:

Proline, glutamate, taurine, methionine, tryptophan, leucine, isoleucine, arginine, phenylalanine and urea. The best trout feeding stimulation response was to proline, but only at a very specific concentration.

From this you can see that in order to achieve the highest possible feeding response to proteins in our baits, then we need to use the optimum, natural concentrations of L or naturally occurring amino acids in our baits, contained in whole food ingredient form.

Using high quality protein ingredients, we can also optimize their nutritional attractional effects, and induce active bacterial or enzymic breakdown of these proteins. This releases maximum amino acid attraction, which can also be supplemented by free amino acid forms, as in proprietary fishing bait amino acid compounds.

Soaking the baits in amino acid compound, with other nutritional attractors, like vitamins and minerals supplements, has proven to be one of the most effective methods of attracting and catching carp!

Carp will be far more likely to detect your amino acids at the right concentrations when you have maximized their available presence in your baits; so stimulating the maximum feeding response, in a range of water temperatures and pH. This really is maximizing carp bait sensing olfaction for top catch results!

This fishing bait secrets books author has many more fishing and bait edges up his sleeve. Every single one can have a huge impact on catches.

By Tim Richardson.